2. What Differences Between the Old and New Covenant?
【Heb. 9:16-17】 In the case of a will, it is necessary to prove the death of the one who made it, because a will is in force only when somebody has died; it never takes effect while the one who made it is living.
In the case of a will, Bible says, it will be effective only as the death of the person who makes it. The covenant to forgive our sins will not take effect until the one who made it dies. It is because the power to forgive our sins comes from the shedding of blood (death) as belows.
【Heb. 9:22】 In fact, the law requires that nearly everything be cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.
In the case of the old covenant, Jehovah who established the covenant, has never died. The old covenant was not established by the shedding of blood. Instead, the blood of the calves was called the blood of the covenant (Hebrews 9:20). It means that the blood of a calf or a goat replaced the death of Jehovah. The old covenant, established in the name of Jehovah, has no power of eternal salvation because the blood of the beast replaced the blood of the Lord.
【Heb. 10:1】 The law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming–not the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship.
【Heb. 9:10】 They are only a matter of food and drink and various ceremonial washings–external regulations applying until the time of the new order.
The old covenant served as a stepping stone to go to the new covenant, but without the power of salvation. The Bible says that the Israelites had not been forgiven of their sins in the name of Jehovah.
What about the new covenant? It was Jesus who established the new covenant. And Jesus placed his seal on the new covenant by the shedding of blood.
【Luke 22:20】 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.
Jesus made the new covenant and died of blood, forgiving the forgiveness of sins. He made it possible for every believer in Jesus to be forgiven of sins through his new covenant. Through the new covenant, the forgiveness of sins that could not be received in the name of Jehovah, who established the old covenant, was made possible. Meanwhile, regarding the new covenant, the apostle John said it was the commandment of God.
【Rev. 14:12】 This calls for patient endurance on the part of the saints who obey God’s commandments and remain faithful to Jesus.
The saints are those who obey God’s commandments and remain faithful to Jesus. The commandment refers to the feasts, offerings, and sanctuary. The commandments of the old covenant have been changed into the new covenant. If you want be a saint, it is not enough to remain faithful to Jesus, and you must keep the commandments of the new covenant.
After the resurrection, Jesus ascended and held the heavenly sanctuary, and became the high priest who followed the order of Melchizedek, giving us the forgiveness of sins through the service of the sanctuary with the blood of His sacrifice. Jesus’ blood replaced the blood of the beast. The high priest was changed from Levitical priests who follow the order of Aaron to Jesus Christ who follows the order of Melchizedek. And the sanctuary on the earthly Jerusalem also was replaced by the heavenly sanctuary.
The commandment of the new covenant is the spiritual worship which is served in the heavenly sanctuary at the appointed time of every feasts. The spiritual worship of the new covenant can be effective in the name of Jesus who has been sacrificed on the cross by the shedding of blood. The appointed times, the Sabbath day, the seven feasts three times from the Passover to the feast of Tabernacle, are those through which we are forgiven with the merits of the blood of Jesus Christ.